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How do I cite photos, graphics, artwork, and images?

Edu Pro Plan users can now choose from several illustration citation types, including the "Photo/Picture/Graphic/Artwork" citation source type, to generate citations for various illustrations. These can then be included in the Bibliography or copied and pasted.

IMPORTANT: If you are reproducing the image in your document, you don't need to cite the image. You should generally indicate if an image is under copyright (and reproduced with permission), licensed through Creative Commons, or is in the public domain.  

When you include the item as an image in your paper, some styles indicate that the full citation should go in a caption below the image. 

Here are a few pointers which may help:

MLA 9th edition [1.7] Tables and Illustrations

Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure (usually abbreviated Fig.), assigned an Arabic numeral, and given a caption.

A label and caption ordinarily appear directly below the illustration and have the same one-inch margins as the text of the paper. If a table or illustration caption provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry is needed for the source in the works cited list. If you provide full bibliographic details in a caption, punctuate the caption like a works-cited-list entry but do not invert the name of the author or artist that appears at the beginning of the caption (fig. 1.6). Otherwise, use commas to separate elements in a caption and provide full publication details in the works-cited list (fig. 1.7).

Fig. 1.6.Fig. 1.7.
A figure in a research paper, with full bibliographic details in the caption.A figure in a research paper, with a caption that points to a works-cited-list entry.

APA 7th Edition

Step 1: Determine the Type of Source

Identify whether you reference a photograph, map, illustration, or chart. Each may have specific details to include in your citation.

Step 2: Gather Information

Collect all the necessary information for your citation. For most visual sources, you'll need:

Photograph: Photographer's name, year of creation, title or description, location (if applicable), and any relevant details (e.g., museum, collection).

See APA Manual (7th ed.), Section 10.14 for guidelines on citing photographs.

Map: Cartographer's name, year of creation, title or description, scale, publication place, and publisher.

Refer to APA Manual (7th ed.), Section 10.15 for guidance on citing maps.

Illustration: Creator's name, year of creation, title or description, source (if applicable), and publication information.

APA Manual (7th ed.), Section 10.16 provides information on citing illustrations.

Chart: Creator's name, year of creation, title or description, source (if applicable), and publication information.

Please review the APA Manual (7th ed.), Section 10.16, for instructions on citing charts.

Step 3: Format Your Citation

You can use the appropriate format for your source type based on the guidelines provided in the relevant sections of the APA 7th edition manual.

Step 4: Include the Citation in Your Reference List

Add your citation to the reference list at the end of your paper, following the format prescribed in the APA 7th edition manual.

Step 5: In-Text Citation

When you use the visual source in your paper, you can create an in-text citation following the guidelines outlined in the APA 7th edition manual, including the author's last name and the year of creation in parentheses.

By following these steps and referencing the specific sections in the APA 7th edition manual, you can make sure that you properly cite photographs, maps, illustrations, or charts in your academic work according to APA 7th edition guidelines.